BBC 22 September 2016 – 12 September 2020Between 1993 and 1994, during the Afghan civil war, whispers of a group of religious students were heard in Saudi-sponsored schools in Pakistan. The group called itself the Islamic Tehreek-e-Taliban (Islamic Movement of Taliban) and infiltrated Afghanistan from the southern border with the slogan “Implementing Islamic Sharia” and fighting what it calls evil and corruption in Afghanistan, and quickly invaded various cities and provinces.
In the middle of that decade, in 1995, the Taliban achieved their greatest victory to date and succeeded in capturing the strategic province of Herat on the Iranian-Turkmen border.
A year later in 1996, they succeeded in capturing the capital, Kabul. With the fall of Kabul, Burhanuddin Rabbani, the then head of the Mojahedin government, moved his government headquarters to Mazar-e-Sharif, where he later fell.One of the first things the Taliban did in the capital was to assassinate Mohammad Najibullah, the last president of the Soviet-backed regime who had taken refuge in the UN office.
By 1998, the Taliban had controlled almost 90 percent of Afghanistan, and the anti-Taliban coalition, known as the Northern Coalition, led by Ahmad Shah Massoud, continued to resist in Panjshir and the northeast.
The Taliban have implemented a strict version of Islamic law in areas under their control. Women were not allowed to work, study or leave the house without a male family member. Men had to wear local clothes, grow thick beards, and cut their hair short. Television, cinema, theater, music and photography were banned. The Afghan calendar had changed from solar Hijri to lunar Hijri, and severe punishments such as amputation and stoning were carried out.
In 1998, following the bombing of two US embassies in East Africa by al-Qaeda, then-President Bill Clinton ordered airstrikes on al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan’s Khost province; An attack that did not harm Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders.In 2000, US pressure on the Taliban to hand over al-Qaeda leaders intensified, and the United Nations boycotted the group.
In early 2001, the Taliban blew up two historic Buddha statues in Bamyan.
In September 2001, two al-Qaeda members assassinated Ahmad Shah Massoud, the top commander of the Northern Alliance in Takhar province; The incident greatly reduced the morale of the opposition forces of the Taliban.
On September 11, 2001, the paper returned to the Taliban. Al-Qaeda, which the Taliban had sheltered its leaders and refused to hand over, attacked hijacked passenger planes, targeting targets in New York and Washington, killing thousands.
It took less than a month for the United States to attack the Taliban at the head of a coalition of allies, and by the first week of December 2001, the group had fallen.Despite extensive search operations, the United States and its allies failed to capture key Taliban leaders, including Mullah Mohammad Omar, who reportedly fled to Quetta, Pakistan, from where they continued to lead the Taliban.
In the early years after the fall of the Taliban, peace returned to Afghanistan, boys and girls returned to school, women were allowed to work, free media increased, and government and democratic institutions were formed and strengthened; These include the adoption of the constitution, the formation of the army, the holding of presidential and parliamentary elections, and the disarmament process of irresponsible groups, along with the formation and strengthening of the army and the national police.
In the years that followed, and more so after 2006, Taliban attacks and bombings became more and more complex, with fewer survivors in Afghanistan, even the Presidential Palace, ministries and NATO headquarters in Afghanistan being targeted by the Taliban. it placed.https://www.bbc.com/persian/afghanistan-54120785